Candles used to be largely made up of solid combustible waxes of fatty substance formed around a wick. It is a source of light. Beeswax candles were used in Egypt and Crete as early as 3000 B.C. Much later, candles were made by pouring molten wax or tallow into molds, containing wicks. Next came the paraffin wax, which is crystallized from petroleum. Today, commercially available candles are approximately made up of 65 percent paraffin wax and 35 percent stearic acid.
Waxes compromises a broad group of opaque, water repellent, essentially solid materials having varied chemical composition and many diverse applications. Its name applied originally to naturally occurring esters of fatty acids and monohydric alcohols but not refers to both natural and manufactured products resembling these esters. They soften gradually on heating, going through a soft, malleable state before ultimately forming a liquid.
Oils are greasy, generally combustible liquid of vegetables, animals or mineral origin which is insoluble in alcohol and always in Ether. Oils are used as food, for lubricating, illuminating and as fuel. It is also used in the manufacture of soap, candles, cosmetics, perfumery, etc.
Wick were made up of cotton or linen woven and braided in such a way that it will burn i n one direction, curling so as to texture its end into oxidizing zone of the candles flame for complete combustion.